Category Archives: Karnataka

4th Anniversary of Dr M.C. Nandeesha


Dr M.C. Nandeesha and Prof M.S. Swaminathan together during a 2011 conference in Chennai on mangrove conservation. Photo: Piyashi DebRoy.

Dr. Mudnakudu C. Nandeesha (1957-2012), who instigated many women/gender in aquaculture and fisheries initiatives, passed away on 27 December 2012. On the 4th anniversary of his passing, we pause to remember him and acknowledge his contributions on many fronts, including on gender awareness and action.

Dr Nandeeshabegan his work in aquaculture research and development in Karnataka State, India, and was then influential in fish breeding in Andra Pradesh. From India, he moved on to work in aquaculture and development work in Cambodia and Bangladesh, before returning to become a leading aquaculture educator in universities in Tripura and Tamil Nadu, India. Along the way, Nandeesha became very engaged and influential in institution building, through professional societies such as the Asian Fisheries Society Indian Branch, the Asian Fisheries Society, the World Aquaculture Society and Aquaculture without Frontiers, among others. He was concerned with improving the professionalisation of fisheries and aquaculture, infrastructure and bringing women and men farmers into collaboration with scientists (see his regular “Farmers as Scientists” articles in NACA’s Asian Aquaculture magazine from about 2002 to 2004: LINK).

See our previous articles on Dr M.C. Nandeesha. LINK

Highlighting the Work of Prof. (Mrs) Vijayakhader, India

Professor Vijahkhader

Prof Vijaykhader has a strong record of contributions to women in fisheries through food technology research and education in India. Her contributions have been recognized recently. She was appointed by the Government of India National Mission on Education and the Ministry of Human Resources Development as the subject coordinator for ICT enabled Higher Education at National level on production of course-ware e-Content for postgraduate subjects especially for Food Technology by.

She will also receive the 3rd Dr.Rajammal P.Devdas Memorial Award for her out standing scientific contributions in the area of Nutritional Sciences. She will deliver the Memorial Award Lecture during the 44th Annual National Conference of Nutrition Society of India (NSI) at Titupathi, Nov.16-17,2012.

We congratulate Prof Vijaykhader for her achievements and below highlight some of her publications and awards that are relevant to women in fisheries.


Chapter 3: Socio-economic status of fisherwomen. Sathiadhas, R and Khader, Vijaya and Hassan, Femeena and Kasim, H M and Sudhakara, N S and Narayanakumar, R and Dhanapal, K and Lakshmi, J.  In: Workshop on Empowerment of Fisher Women, 13-14 October 2003, Hyderabad.

Abstract: In India, women constitute about 50 per cent of the population and comprise one third of the labour force. Women account for 32.5 per cent of the total work force of 121.63 million (1993-94) and the figure is still increasing day by day. Among the different sectors of the Indian economy where women contribute significantly, fishery sector is an important one. Out of the 5.4 million active fishers in India, 3.8 million (70.37%) are fishermen and 1.6 million (29.63%) are fisherwomen.

Study Methodology: In four Indian States – Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamilnadu – 13 coastal districts were selected based on their relative importance in fisheries in the respective States. From these districts, 28 coastal villages were selected based on their method of fishing-mechanized, motorized, non-mechanized and representation of different fisherwomen stakeholders in the district. A total of 5744 households were covered in all the four States.

(Caution: this download is larger than 9.0 Mb)


Nutritional status and socioeconomic empowerment of fisherwomen in the coastal ecosystem of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, India. By V. Khader, R.N. Kumar, J. Lakshmi, K. Dhanapal, H.M. Kasim, R. Sathiadhas and N.S. Sudhakara. In: Global Symposium on Gender and Fisheries – The WorldFish Center.

(Proceedings published 2006: for this paper, please go to pp 69-79 of the publication)

Abstract: This study was carried out in the coastal areas of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. From these states, 13 districts and 28 villages were selected. A total of 5,744 households were covered. Cereal consumption was highest in Andhra Pradesh followed by Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Pulse consumption was high in Kerala when compared to other states. The overall energy intake of the fisherwomen was 1,827 kcal/day; protein intake was 50.6 gm/day; carbohydrate intake was 343 .5 gm/day; and fat intake was 27 gm/day. The mean intake of micronutrients was less than the recommended dietary allowance. The mean body mass index was 21 .3. The nutritional status of the women was: 49% normal; 17 % low normal; 10.5% mildly malnourished; 4% moderately malnourished; and 2.9% severely malnourished. About 11 .5% of the fisherwomen were overweight and 4.6% were obese. A subsample of 915 women was clinically observed: 34 .8% were diagnosed with angular stomatitis; 31 % with cheelosis; 42 .8% with bleeding gums; and 44 .2% with dry skin. Some 72 % of the women were anemic.

An assessment of the socioeconomic status indicated that very few households (15 .4%) maintained livestock for income generation. About 60% of the fisherwomen carried out post-harvest activities to earn income. Food expenditure comprised 60.7% of the earned income contributing to the major share of the spending. Debt servicing was a serious problem faced by 44 .9% of the respondents who had procured loans mostly from non-institutional sources.


Dedicated Fisherwomen of India, In: GAA Global Aquaculture Advocate Magazine

[Link no longer available]

This article was published in the Community and Environment section of GAA’s October 2005 Global Aquaculture Advocate magazine. It was written by Dr. Vijaya Khader, dean of home science at Acharya N. G. Ranga Aricultural University, and Dr. N. S. Sudhakara, head of the Department of Fish Processing Technology at the College of Fisheries in India.


Role of Fisherwomen in Coastal Eco-System of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamilnadu – An OverviewBy Vijaya Khader and R. Sathiadhas

-Association for International Agricultural and Extension Education

22nd annual Conference Proceedings, Clearwater Beach, Florida, USA.

Abstract: The contributions of the fisherwomen penetrate every aspect of post-harvest handling, preservation, processing and marketing of seafood products and provide an intergral link between producers and consumers. Increased competition, declining resources and difficult working conditions make their work challenging. Women, who constitute approximately half of India’s population, play vital role in the operation of the fisheries and their continuing growth as a component of the agriculture sector of the economy. The assessment of the socio economic status indicated that very few households (15.41%) maintained livestock for income generation. About 60 per cent of the fisherwomen carried out post-harvest activities to earn income. Food expenditure comprised 60.68% of the earned income contributing to the major share of the spending. Debt servicing was serious problem faced by 44.9% of the respondents who had availed loans mostly from non-institutional sources. Much of India’s national food security rests on the shoulders of its fisherwomen. Affording comprehensive care for these women is correct in principle and a practical necessity if India’s fisheries sector is to be satisfactorily sustained and the fisher women empowered, both socially and economically. This can only be done through education about nutrition, health, sanitation, and child care, and training on current technologies and best practices techniques. Education materials viz., CDs, Flash Cards, Pamphlets, Brochures and Folders on health and hygiene, disaster management and income generation activities developed to create awareness. Two equipments namely Low cost ice Cream Freezer and multipurpose fresh fish vending and display table fabricated, received patents and licensed the technology to an woman entrepreneur.


Empowerment of Fisherwomen. 2008 Agrotech Pub. Co. 152 pp.

(Limited online searching of text available only)


Prof Vijaykhader receiving the INWES Eminent Scientist Award.

Prof Vijaykhader receiving the INWES Eminent Scientist Award.

On 12 October 2012: Received the EMINENT WOMEN SCIENTIST AWARD in Delhi, India, at the Regional Conference of the International  Network of Women Engineers and Scientists (INWES).

On 17 November 2012: Received the 3rd Dr, Rajammal P.Devdas Memorial Award. Here is the Award statement:

“Prof. Vijayakader, Eminent Academician, Administrator & Extension Worker, Out Standing Scientist was conferred 3rd Dr. Rajammal P.Devdas Memorial Award on 17th Nov.2012 at Sri Venkateswra University during 44th National Conference Organizes by Nutrition Society of India on the topic Current Trends in Food Security to meet National Nutritional Challenges.”

” The Award was given for her major Research work on SOCIO ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT OF RURAL, FARM, FISHER AND TRIBAL WOMEN BESIDES IMPROVING HEALTH & NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF VULNERABLE GROUPS OF POPULATION. The Award of Medal & Certificate will be given by Dr. Anura V  Kurpad, President, Nutrition Society of India.”

“Vijaya Khader was instrumental in starting the INTERFACULTY POST GRADUATE PROGRAM IN FOOD TECHNOLOGY IN A.N.G.R.A.U.”

SPECIAL RELEASE! Proceedings of the 1990 India Women in Fisheries Workshop

  In our fields of interest, we so often  overlook what has already been done.  In fisheries and aquaculture, previous women/gender studies are often forgotten because mainstream interest in them has waxed and waned and previous studies and workshops are forgotten. In addition, many publications from before the internet age are now difficult to find and new researchers and decision-makers have little knowledge of them.

We are very happy to announce one effort to ensure we remember the contributions already made.  Thanks to the executive of the Asian Fisheries Society Indian Branch (especially Dr Nandeesha and Dr Mridula Rajesh) and Dr Bil Hansen, we can now present a full text-searchable version of the 1992 Proceedings of the 1990 AFSIB Workshop on Women in Fisheries.

The Workshop was held in Mangalore, Karnatka and contains materials that remind us:

  • what has changed, especially in the dramatic growth and globalization of the sector and in the greater recognition of gender roles now;
  • what has not, especially the very limited progress in improving the position and recognition of women; and
  • the challenges. In the case of this last point, Nalini Nayak’s keynote address – Fisheries – A Feminist Perspective – is a must read.

Download at

The reference is:

Sudhindra R. Gadagkar, 1992, Women in Indian Fisheries. Proceedings of the Workshop on Women in Indian Fisheries, 27 May 1990. Special Publication 8, 51 pp. Asian Fisheries Society, Indian Branch, Mangalore, India.

Cover credit: Muralikrishna, B.


  • Foreword H.P.C. Shetty p. 5
  • Preface Suhindra R. Gadagkar p. 7
  • Fisheries – A Feminist Perspective Nalini Nayak p. 9
  • Women Fish Vendors of South Kerala and their Efforts to Organise  Alleyamma Vijayan p. 12
  • Fisherwomen’s Problems and Their Social Participation in Chidambaranar District of Tamil Nadu B. Ahilan and P. Selvaraj p. 16
  • Problems of Women Workers in the Fish Processing Industry  Beena. D.  p. 19
  • Empowering Fisherwomen Krishna Srinath and K. Thangamani p. 21
  • Role of Apex Institutions in Promoting Fisherwomen Cooperatives S. Surya Chandra Rao p. 24
  • Employment Opportunities for Women in Freshwater Aquaculture T.J. Varghese and M.C. Nandeesha p. 27
  • Employment Opportunities for Women in Coastal Aquaculture K. Alagaraswami p. 30
  • Employment Generation for Women in Fisheries M.R. Nair and M.K. Kandoran p. 33
  • Fishery Technology Package for the Upliftment of Coastal Women P.J. Cecily p. 36
  • Training of Women in Fish Processing and Fish Culture P. Sukumar, N.V. Sujath Kumar and P. Selvaraj p. 40
  • Training Campaigns on Fish Processing for Fisherwomen in Chidambaranar and Tirunelveli Kattabomman Districts of Tamil Nadu B. Ahilan, N.V. Sujath Kumar and P. Selvaraj p. 43
  • Women in Fisheries Research and Education T. Rajyalakshmi p. 45
  • Women in Fisheries Management and Administration Shakuntala Shenoy p. 48
  • Recommendations of the Workshop p. 50