Monthly Archives: January 2013

Add Gender Transformative Approach to Existing Efforts to Overcome Gender Inequality

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The report from a recent CGIAR workshop at WorldFish Center, plus interviews with thought-leaders give insights into new ideas on a gender transformative approach.

Building Coalitions, Creating Change: An Agenda for Gender Transformative Research in Development

CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems. Penang, Malaysia. Workshop Report: AAS-2012-31.

Abstract:

There is compelling evidence that increased gender equity can make a significant contribution towards alleviating poverty and increasing food security. But past efforts to integrate gender into agricultural research and development practice have failed to address the inequalities that limit women’s access to agricultural inputs, markets, resources and advice. A Gender Transformative Approach (GTA) goes beyond just considering the symptoms of gender inequality, and addresses the social norms, attitudes, behaviors and social systems that underlie them. The CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS) has placed the GTA at the heart of its gender strategy. This workshop was an opportunity for researchers, practitioners and donors working in this area to address the challenge of how to translate this approach into actual research and development practice. The workshop recommended that a GTA should be adopted alongside, not instead of, existing efforts to reverse gender disparities in resources, technologies and markets. It is through this pairing that improved social and material outcomes can be achieved, with the expectation that when achieved together, both types of outcomes will be more lasting than if achieved individually.

Lake Victoria Fishermen’s Spouses Who Travel More at Risk of HIV/AIDS

Fish market, Kisimu County, Kenya. Photo source: guide2kenya.com

Fish market, Kisimu County, Kenya. Photo source: guide2kenya.com

The new study by Zachary A. Kwena, Carol S. Camlin, Chris A. Shisanya, Isaac Mwanzo, Elizabeth A. Bukusi, carried out in Kisimu County, near Lake Victoria, Kenya, delves into social patterns of mobility and the risks it brings for contracting HIV/AIDS.

Short-Term Mobility and the Risk of HIV Infection among Married Couples in the Fishing Communities along Lake Victoria, Kenya

PLOS ONE: download paper here 

Also check out links below for other recent papers on HIV/AIDS in Uganda Lake Victoria fishing communities.

Abstract

Objective: Mobility has long been associated with high HIV prevalence. We sought to assess sex differences in the relationship between mobility and risk for HIV infection among married couples in the fishing communities.

Methods: We conducted 1090 gender-matched interviews and rapid HIV testing with 545 couples proportionally representing all the different sizes of the fish-landing beaches in Kisumu County. We contacted a random sample of fishermen as our index participants and asked them to enrol in the study together with their spouses. The consenting couples were separated into different private rooms for concurrent interviews and thereafter reunited for couple rapid HIV counselling and testing. In addition to socio-economic and behavioural data, we collected information on overnight travels and divided couples in 4 groups as follows both partners not mobile, both partners mobile, only woman mobile, and only man mobile. Other than descriptive statistics, we used X2 and U tests to compare groups of variables and multivariate logistic regression to measure association between mobility and HIV infection.

Results: We found significant differences in the number of trips women travelled  in the preceding month (mean 4.6, SD 7.1) compared to men (mean 3.3, SD 4.9; p,0.01) and when the women did travel, they were more likely to spend more days away from home than their male partners (mean 5.2 [SD 7.2] versus 3.4 SD 5.6; p = 0.01). With an HIV prevalence of 22.7% in women compared to 20.9% among men, mobile women who had non-mobile spouses had 2.1 times the likelihood of HIV infection compared to individuals in couples where both partners were non-mobile.

Conclusion: The mobility of fishermen’s spouses is associated with HIV infection that is not evident among fishermen themselves. Therefore, interventions in this community could be a combination of sex-specific programming that targets women and combined programming for couples.

Also read about other studies regarding HIV/AIDS in fishing communities around Lake Victoria, from Uganda.

https://genderaquafish.org/2011/09/24/hiv-behavioural-survey-and-tests-in-uganda-fishing-communities/

https://genderaquafish.org/2011/08/18/uganda-fishing-communties-study-on-hivaids-rates-in-women-and-men/

Women as agents of wellbeing in Northern Ireland’s fishing households

Herring processing, Ardgladd, Ireland 1920s. Source: www.banffshiremaritime.org.uk

Herring processing, Ardgladd, Ireland 1920s. Source: http://www.banffshiremaritime.org.uk

Gendered change in fisheries is starting to emerge as a significant field of research. This new research paper from Easkey Britton, published in Maritime Studies, finds that, over the last century – from the days of the independent “herring lassies” to the days of  fisheries decline and factory closures –  women have become less and less visible, but more and more important to family well-being, often at the expense of subjugating their own needs. The paper is called “Women as agents of wellbeing in Northern Ireland’s Fishing households.”

Abstract
This paper focuses on the gender dimensions of wellbeing in fishing households in Northern Ireland. The impact of change in the fishing industry on women’s wellbeing is outlined and linkages are made between changing access to fish and changing roles of women in fishing households. The paper explores what this change means for how women perceive and pursue their wellbeing needs and aspirations and how they negotiate their needs with the needs of the household. In an occupation as gender biased as fishing it is argued that in order for fisheries management and policy to be successful, a profile of what really matters to people is important. In particular, the paper highlights how such priorities link to the complex and dynamic role of women in fishing households.

The paper is open access and can be downloaded here

Also check out our earlier story on northern UK women in fisheries, covering a previous paper by Easkey and one by Minghua Zhao and colleagues.

https://genderaquafish.org/2012/08/01/new-insights-into-gender-roles-in-uk-fishing-communities/

What does space in a fish trading house mean to the fish traders?

Women fish traders examine fish before the auction. Photo: N. Turgo

Women fish traders examine fish before the auction. Photo: N. Turgo

Nelson Turgo’s paper, “Bugabug ang dagat” (Rough seas): Experiencing Foucault’s heterotopia in fish trading houses, in Social Science Diliman, provides intriguing analysis of how women and men fish traders use and view their daily spaces in fish trading houses of Mauban, Quezon province, Philippines.

Abstract:

Places in the contemporary world are subjected to the workings of differentiating logics, foremost of which is globalization and to the other end, the counter-logic of  localization, which results in, amongst others, the instantiation of differing spaces. These spaces, oftentimes co-existing and overlapping, are a result of contrapuntal forces, enacting their own colonization of places by people of varying interests. This article explores the other uses of kumisyunan (fish trading houses) by magririgaton (fish vendors) from a small fishing community in Quezon province that “simultaneously represent, contest, and invert” the very purpose and nature of the places’ rationale: fish trading. Heterotopia will be deployed in this article to further the ends of how a particular place could be inhabited by a number of spaces or exhibit alternate spatial possibilities and display a plethora of spatial practices within one singular location at different times in a particular spatial and temporal context. The article hopes to contribute to the further understanding of how everyday life and place is lived and reproduced in the variegated geographies of globalization in a developing economy like the Philippines.

Download the paper here

In GAF2, 2007 Kochi, Dr C. Ramachandran and colleagues presented on: “Gendered spaces, Technological Change and Fisheries Sustainability: A comparative analysis of women in Tuna Fisheries in Lakshadeep and Bivalve Fisheries in Kerala”.  This is another fascinating investigation of the use of space by women and men in a fisheries setting. Downlaod the PPT here.

See also Dr Turgo’s earlier paper and storyInsider’s Rapport? Take a Visit to a Philippine Coastal Community with Dr Nelson Turgo, Social Scientist

Also see Dr Turgo’s Ph D thesis: http://www.sirc.cf.ac.uk/uploads/thesis/Turgo.pdf

Genderaquafish.org gathers momentum: 2012 in Review

Map showing origins of visits to Genderaquafish.org from 25 Feb 2012 to 31 Dec 2012. Source: WordPress

Map showing origins of visits to Genderaquafish.org from 25 Feb 2012 to 31 Dec 2012. Source: WordPress

Women’s and men’s contributions are both critical to the success of aquaculture and fisheries. Statistics on the growing interest being shown in this website since its creation over two years ago (in September 2010) indicate that more people are taking an interest in research and development insights on gender in aquaculture and fisheries.

In 2012, the number of user visits to our website, Genderaquafish.org, grew from nearly nine thousand in 2011 to almost 15 thousand – a growth of 67%.  Most pleasingly, you, the users, came from all over the planet. To be precise, visitors came from 154 countries and territories. Our top 5 countries, in order of hits, were: India, USA, Philippines, UK and Malaysia, with Asia the top region (find your country/territory in the detailed statistical download: 2013-01-01 Months and Years).

Table of Visits by User Country/Territory (from 25 February to 31 December 2012)

2013-01-01 table of regions

One of the reasons for the increased visitor traffic has been the new research and policy material uploaded (thanks to many active participants who have provided much of the material) and an active year of gender in aquaculture and fisheries (GAF) events that we reported.

Here are links reports from some of the featured 2012 GAF events and milestones.

(a) Digital copy of AFS Indian Branch 1990 Women in Fisheries Workshop https://genderaquafish.org/2012/07/04/special-release-proceedings-of-the-1990-india-women-in-fisheries-workshop/ (we have 3 more ‘historical’ docs from the 90s in train at present – watch for them this year)

(b) GAF3 Special Issue of Asian Fisheries Science journal https://genderaquafish.org/2012/08/18/moving-the-agenda-forward/

(c) Report of the 2011 FAO Special Workshop on GAF published https://genderaquafish.org/events/fao-special-workshop-2011/

(d) Chapter on women in aquaculture in the 2010 FAO Global Conference on Aquaculture proceedings released: (https://genderaquafish.org/2012/05/24/enhancing-global-aquacuture-opportunities-for-women/)

(e) February 2012 meeting of the ASEM Aquaculture Platform gender element (WP7) https://genderaquafish.org/2012/04/20/malaysian-workshop-upgrades-knowledge-develops-plans-for-gender-equity-in-asian-aquaculture/ 

(f) June 2012 meeting of the Mekong Network in Gender in Fisheries (their 13th Annual Meeting) – see report: https://genderaquafish.org/2012/06/30/in-for-the-long-haul/

(g) Report of the July 2012 IIFET Gender in Fish Value Chains sessions https://genderaquafish.org/2012/11/29/overcoming-gender-inequalities-in-fish-supply-chains/

(h) Report of September 2012 Philippines WINFISH conference https://genderaquafish.org/2012/10/20/philippine-conference-on-women-fishers-a-great-success/

(i) Release of the 2012 World Bank/FAO/WorldFish Center  study “Hidden Harvest” on employment in small scale fisheries, including gender disaggregated data: https://genderaquafish.org/2012/09/17/women-hold-up-47-of-the-fisheries-sky/

With GAF4 in the planning (see: https://genderaquafish.org/2012/10/21/gaf4-news-follow-updates-on-genderaquafish-org/), and many more gender and fisheries events planned, we look forward to a productive year with even further growth in interest in gender in aquaculture and fisheries.

We welcome first hand news of gender in aquaculture and fisheries and related events, and information on your publications, achievements and views. Please keep them coming in!