GAF5 is fast approaching!

Calligraphy in Urdu script is considered an art form. This fish was written by Syed Azeem Haider Jafri, a calligrapher from Lucknow. Source: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/atlas/urdu/calligraphy.html

Calligraphy in Urdu script is an art form. This fish was written by Syed Azeem Haider Jafri, a calligrapher from Lucknow. Source: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/atlas/urdu/calligraphy.html

The 5th Gender in Aquaculture and Fisheries symposium (GAF5) will be held from 12-15 November 2014 in Lucknow, India, as part of the 10th Indian Fisheries and Aquaculture Forum (10IFAF) of the Asian Fisheries Society Indian Branch.

The final day for abstract submission is now extended to 10 September 2014.

All registration and submissions of abstracts will be done through the main channels for 10IFAF (http://10ifaf.in/).

Latest advice: Participants can register and also submit abstracts online without paying the registration fee up front. There is an option in making paying ‘payment to be made before due date’. A participant may choose this option and register w/o paying, then they can also submit abstract.

New: For visa information please visit: information on how to obtain your Indian visa to attend GAF5

New: draft themes and program for GAF5.

How can we incorporate gender into our research and development approaches?

Participants at the ASEM gender in aquaculture training course, 2012 contemplate the basics. Source: Jariah Masud.

Participants at the ASEM gender in aquaculture training course, 2012 contemplate the basics. Source: Jariah Masud.

More development research institute leaders, researchers and project developers are aware of the importance of gender equality in programs and project activities. Some have made public commitments to action through their work. Often, however, these good intentions are thwarted by lack of knowledge and expertise on how to go about it. Of course, in an ideal world, the solution is to call in the experts, and this is still important. However, experts are much in demand and may not be readily accessible. How can you educate yourself about research and project development methods? One way is to learn from what the experts have written, of course!

This post highlights some condensed wisdom that has recently been published, plus provides links to some of our previous posts on gender research and development methods.  If you know of other handy materials, we would welcome learning of them, so that we can help share them with our readers

Standards for collecting sex-disaggregated data

Visit this site to download the document

This 6 page guide is an excellent condensation of the key points, highlighted in the list of “MUST HAVES FOR GENDER ANALYSIS.” It is published by IFPRI on behalf of the CGIAR Policies, Institutions and Markets research program.

  • Collect information about both men and women. Ask questions about specific individuals or groups and identify them by sex.
  • Collect information from men and women. This does not necessarily require interviewing men and women in the same household. Studies that fail to include male and female respondents will be subject to biases; the extent of the bias will depend on the knowledge and perceptions of the respondent(s).
  • All data collection methods must be context specific. Questions must be adapted to the context. Those collecting and analyzing the data need to understand gender roles and social dynamics. This knowledge must also guide the settings for interviews or focus groups.
  • Budget for the additional costs of collecting sex-disaggregated data.
  • Work with a gender expert early in the process to define the research question and methodology.
  • Researchers collecting data from human subjects must ensure that the participants have completed a confidentiality and consent agreement. While these requirements are important for all research, they are essential for gender analyses that address sensitive topics such as asset ownership and domestic violence.
  • Comparing male and female headed households is not gender analysis. Differences between these diverse household types cannot necessarily be attributed to the sex of the household head.

Value chain analysis and gender

This publication, Review of gender and value chain analysis, development and evaluation toolkits, from ILRI on behalf of the CGIAR research program on Livestock and Fish, is essentially a review of qualitative and quantitative tools found in workshop materials, manuals, guide books, handbooks, reports, research papers and toolkits themselves. It also gives sample rapid assessment tools for livestock and crop value chains.

Visit this site to download the publication

other resources from previous genderaquafish.org posts

We have posted in the past on a number of other research and project development resources. Here are their links.

1. From the FAO-Spain Regional Fisheries Livelhioods Programme

How to mainstream gender in small scale fisheries

RFLP Gender Mainstreaming manual

2. IFPRI on gender data in agriculture

Data needs for gender analysis in agriculture

Never too late to mainstream gender

Many agencies and projects find themselves in the same situation as the Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem project (BOBLME), which realised that it had not taken gender into account in formulating its strategies and project priorities. To overcome this gap, BOBLME undertook an ex post analysis of the gender dimension of their work and what to do to catch up on including gender.

These efforts have now been condensed and presented in a new paper by Cecile Brugere called Mainstreaming gender in transboundary natural resources projects – the experience of the Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem (BOBLME) projectThe experience and the processes used in the BOBLME planning efforts for gender should be of value to other agencies who find themselves starting late to incorporate gender.

The paper is open access in the journal Environmental Development and can be be downloaded here.

Abstract: The Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem (BOBLME) project aims to improve the lives of men and women depending on the fisheries resources of the Bay of Bengal. Despite the major role women play in fisheries, the contents of the project documents have however remained gender-blind. The paper proposes that the Theory of Change offers a compelling framework to consider how this could be redressed in an ex-post manner, enabling transboundary natural resources projects such as the BOBLME project to contribute to gender equality and women’s empowerment. Practical steps are suggested. They include the elaboration of a high-level statement of political will to gender equality and the consideration of gender-sensitive actions and cross-cutting issues covering communication, gender-disaggregated data collection and governance. A commitment to impact through human capacity building and the allocation of adequate budgets for gender mainstreaming, is fundamental to embrace the change process that progress towards gender equality requires. In line with the Theory of Change, the development of a pathway to impact and use of gender- sensitive outcome mapping as a form of monitoring and evaluation are suggested as pivotal in capturing the changes expected from mainstreaming gender in the project and the project’s own influence in progressing towards gender equality in the region. The main- streaming approach proposed could be generalised to other transboundary natural resources projects of a similar institutional and operational structure to the BOBLME project.

Women lead team that wins Indian technology award

We are pleased to highlight this recent Indian technology award to a team of largely women professionals. Congratulations to Dr Leela Edwin, Dr Nikita Gopal and Dr Meenakumari and their colleagues!

CIFT Press Release, July 2014

Shri Ananth Kumar, Hon'ble Minister for Chemicals & Fertilizers, Govt. of India, presenting the  Award to Dr. Leela Edwin, Team Leader and other team members (from left Dr. Ajith Peter, Dr. Nikita Gopal, Dr. B. Meenakumari & Dr. Saly N Thomas). Shri Nihal Chand, MoS, looks on. Photo: CIFT

Shri Ananth Kumar, Hon’ble Minister for Chemicals & Fertilizers, Govt. of India, presenting the Award to Dr. Leela Edwin, Team Leader and other team members (from left Dr. Ajith Peter, Dr. Nikita Gopal, Dr. B. Meenakumari & Dr. Saly N Thomas). Shri Nihal Chand, MoS, looks on. Photo: CIFT

A team of researchers from the Central Institute of Fisheries Technology (CIFT), Kochi, received the 4th National Awards for Technology Innovation in Petrochemicals & Downstream Plastics Processing Industry (Runner Up) in the field of Polymer Science and Technology from Hon’ble Minister of Chemicals & Fertilizers, Govt. of India, Shri. Ananth Kumar. Also present was Shri. Nihal Chand, MoS, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilisers, Govt. of India. The award was presented on July 17, 2014 at a function held at Manekshaw Centre, New Delhi. The award instituted by the Department of Chemicals and Petrochemicals, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers, Government of India, was presented to the team for their work on “Upgradation of Treated Rubberwood Using FRP Sheathing for Fishing Boat Construction”. Dr. Leela Edwin, Principal Scientist and Head of Fishing Technology Division is the team leader. Others in the team are Dr. P Muhamed Ashraf, Dr. Nikita Gopal, Dr. M Ajith Peter, Dr. A Sreeja, Dr. Saly N Thomas and Dr. B Meenakumari.

A fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) rubberwood canoe. Source: CIFT

A fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) rubberwood canoe. Source: CIFT

To learn more about the invention, read more here, and read the economic assessment.

“Technology Evaluation Model for Rural Innovations – Case Study of Rubberwood Fishing Craft for the Small-scale Fisheries Sector” by Nikita Gopal, Leela Edwin in Fishery Technology, Vol 50, No 4 (2013).

E-mail: Nikita Gopal Nikita.Gopal@gmail.com

Abstract: The use of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) for fishing craft construction is an innovation introduced by the Central Institute of Fisheries Technology (CIFT), Cochin, Kerala, India. Technology evaluation is an integral part of any technology development to place the technology in its proper perspective. This paper presents a simple model of evaluating the technology by describing the Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation (PME) cycle and assessing impact through patent profiling, cost evaluation and looking at the social benefits. It has been observed that introduction of the technology has made available an alternative timber to the traditional boat building industry. Reduction in cost of construction to the tune of 28% and overall reduction of 35-40% in maintenance costs has been possible. FRP sheathed rubberwood fishing crafts are maintenance free. A patent profiling of the technology revealed that for use of rubberwood in traditional fisheries for canoe construction, there are no patents except for the ones filed by CIFT. Social benefits include availability of a cheap fishing craft for fishing operations which is the sole livelihood option of the traditional fishermen.

Bangladesh aquaculture value chain analysis

Freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium) in Bangaldesh. Source: ILRI https://www.flickr.com/photos/ilri/14156057093

Freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium) in Bangaldesh. Source: ILRI https://www.flickr.com/photos/ilri/14156057093

A new CGIAR report, “Bangladesh small and medium-scale aquaculture value chain development: Past trends, current status and likely future directions”  by Niaz Ahmed Apu reviews a wealth of recent information and and also endeavours to do justice to available knowledge on the contributions and opportunities for women in the value chains.

Gendered knowledge is still badly hampered by lack of sex-disaggregated national statistics and lack of these data from many projects and activities. However, the report does track down numerous insights into where women work in aquaculture fish value chains, and how the burgeoning production of low-priced but nutritious fish from aquaculture has benefited many Bangladeshis. For example, many women working in the garment factories have limited time to do housework and cooking and they appreciate pangasius (catfish) and tilapia because they are affordable and easy to process.

Women’s and men’s roles in fish and shrimp farming, culture-based fisheries, fish processing (local market and factory based) and marketing are described, along with a general overview of the developments in this dynamic sector.

Read the news summary and download the report here.

 

Dedicated extension scientist and team win Outstanding Interdisciplinary Team Award

DSC_7330a

Dr. B. Shanthi receiving the award from Dr. Sanjeev Kumar Balyan, Hon’ble Minister of State for Agriculture & Food Processing Industries, and (r.) Shri Radha Mohan Singh, Hon’ble Union Minister of Agriculture. The Chief Guest at the ICAR awards programme was the Hon’ble Prime Minister of India Shri Narendra Modi.

Dr. B. Shanthi, Principal Scientist (Home Science), and team, Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture (CIBA), Chennai (India), recently won the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) Award for Outstanding Interdisciplinary Team Research in Agricultural and Allied Sciences – 2011-12, for work done under the Department of Bio-Technology funded project on Diversification of Livelihoods among Women Self Help Groups through Coastal Aquaculture Technologies.

This project was implemented at the field level, in Pulicat Village, Tiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu, for 3 years during 2007-2010. Three key technologies, crab fattening as an alternative livelihood in various environments, design, development, fabrication of prototype and installation of mini shrimp feed plant of 200 kg/ day capacity and establishment of fish pickle making unit were introduced. The highlight of this project was the last mile connectivity established through NGO’s working in the district and also ensuring the end to end supply chain of inputs and assured buy back of different output. The project resulted in a 50% increase in the number of days of gainful employment, 28.35% improvement in money income, enhanced awareness of the importance of education, health and hygiene, linkages with bank finance and also resulted in recognition of outstanding work done in the project by stakeholders by important organisations and institutions.

Dr. Shanthi led from the front and the success of the project can be largely attributed to her single handed effort. Hearty congratulations to a dedicated extension scientist!

[Thank you to Dr Mohan Krishnan for this information on “The Fisheries Social Scientists” Facebook page.

Here are two recent outputs from Dr Shanthi and her team:

Picture1Polyculture of Mudcrabs and Asian Seabass by Irular Tribal People in a Community Pond”    Download here

CIBA-e- publications series No. 27 “Opportunities for social mobilization among the irular tribal people using common water bodies for aqua farming” by B. Shanthi, M. Kailasam, V.S.Chandrasekaran, P. Mahalakshimi, C.P.Balasubramanian, K. Ambasankar, Ravichandran and A.G. Ponniah.    Download here [Caution: 7MB file]

For some of our past posts on Dr Shanthi and her team’s work, click here

Women’s economic space in Sierra Leone’s small-scale fisheries

Women selling smoked fish in a market, Sierra Leone. Photo: Environmental Justice Foundation, http://ejfoundation.org/oceans/artisanal-fishing-industry-in-sierra-leone

Women selling smoked fish in a market, Sierra Leone. Photo: Environmental Justice Foundation, http://ejfoundation.org/oceans/artisanal-fishing-industry-in-sierra-leone

In a recent publication in the journal Feminist Economics, Fishing Na Everybody Business”: Women’s Work and Gender Relations in Sierra Leone’s Fisheries, Andy Thorpe and co-authors take three sets of data (from the National Frame Surveys of the Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources, a survey of women fish processors by the Institute of Marine Biology and Oceanography, and a World Bank survey of fishing communities) and perform a rich analysis of typically low-profile women in Sierra Leone fisheries.

Presently, Sierra Leone is one of the world’s most vulnerable countries, and one quite dependent on fish resources. The authors conclude:

The livelihoods of women involved in the sector are complex, with fisheries-derived incomes not only being supplemented by alternative employment such as small-scale farming or running a small business, but also by household sharing (at least in part) of resources and incomes. A greater understanding of the (fisher) household economy is thus imperative to not only understand how women combine productive and reproductive tasks in Sierra Leone’s fishing communities, but also the extent to which women and men pool resources and income at the household level. Our study shows how although such women (in the main) lack education, access to resources, financial capital, and decision-making power, they nevertheless derive, in some instances quite substantive, incomes from fish processing.

 Link to journal article

Contact for lead author Prof. Andy Thorpe: andy.thorpe@port.ac.uk

Abstract: While small-scale fisheries in many developing countries is “everybody’s business,” a gendered labor division concentrates production in the hands of fishermen while women dominate postharvest processing and retailing. The production bias of fisheries management programs has not only largely overlooked the role of fisherwomen, but also marginalized “fish mammies” in terms of resources and training. This study draws on three in-country fisheries surveys, as well as interviews and focus groups, and employs a gender-aware sustainable livelihood framework to make visible the economic space occupied by women in Sierra Leone’s small-scale fisheries. The study highlights how women’s variegated access to capital and resources interacts with social norms and reproductive work and argues for more social and economic investment in women’s fish processing and reproductive work enabling them to reconcile both roles more effectively.

Report recommends integrating fish into food security and nutrition


HLPE-Report-7_Cover-smA new report, Sustainable Fisheries and Aquaculture for Food Security and Nutrition, has provided probably “the most comprehensive recent attempt to review and synthesize the current knowledge” said Dr Christophe Béné. Dr Béné, of the Institute of Development Studies, chaired the team of the High Level Panel of Experts (HLPE) on Food Security and Nutrition of the Committee on World Food Security that produced the report.

The report recommends that fish need to be fully integrated into all aspects of food security and nutrition policies and programmes. It pays special attention to all dimensions of food security and nutrition and promotes small-scale production and local arrangements, as local markets, e.g. for procuring school meals, and other policy tools, including nutrition education and gender equality.

The report is dedicated to Chandrika Sharma who was one of the peer reviewers of the report.

HLPE Team for fish, food security and nutrition report. Left to right: Gro-Ingunn Hemre, Modadugu V. Gupta, Moenieba Isaacs, Chris Béné, Meryl Williams, Ningsheng Yang and Vincent Gitz (Secretary)

HLPE Team for fish, food security and nutrition report. Left to right: Gro-Ingunn Hemre, Modadugu V. Gupta, Moenieba Isaacs, Chris Béné, Meryl Williams, Ningsheng Yang and Vincent Gitz (Secretary)

Download the report here

Extract of the FOREWORD by Per Pinstrup-Andersen, Chair of HLPE Steering Committee

This report addresses a frequently overlooked but extremely important part of world food and nutrition security: the role and importance of fish in seeking food and nutrition security for all. Fisheries and aquaculture have often been arbitrarily separated from other parts of the food and agricultural systems in food security studies, debates and policy-making. I applaud the Committee on World Food Security for its decision to bring fisheries and aquaculture fully into the debate about food and nutrition security.

The report presents a synthesis of existing evidence regarding the complex pathways between fisheries and aquaculture and food and nutrition security, including the environmental, economic and social dimensions, as well as issues related to governance. It provides insights on what needs to be done to achieve sustainable fisheries and aquaculture in order to strengthen their positive impact on food and nutrition security.

The ambition of this compact yet comprehensive report is to help the international community to share and understand the wide spectrum of issues that make fisheries and aquaculture such an important part of efforts to assure food security for all.

The High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition (HLPE) was created in 2010 to provide the United Nations’ Committee on World Food Security (CFS) with evidence-based and policy-oriented analysis to underpin policy debates and policy formulation. While specific policy interventions should be based on context-specific understanding, HLPE reports provide evidence relevant to the diversity of contexts, with recommendations aiming to be useful to guide context-specific policy interventions.

The main findings of the report cover the themes:

  • Fish as a critical food source
  • Fish has received little attention in food security and nutrition strategies
  • Risks and pressures affecting the world fisheries
  • Opportunities and challenges in aquaculture
  • Small vs large scale fishing operations
  • Unsettled debates on fish trade
  • Social protection and labour rights
  • Gender equity
  • Governance

In the Executive Summary, the report says the following on Gender Equity (paras 27-29; the body of the report contains more detail)

  • 27. The first comprehensive attempt to estimate the number of fish workers found that 56 million, near half of the 120 million people who work in the capture fisheries sector and its supply chains, are women. This is essentially due to the very high number of female workers engaged in fish processing (including in processing factories) and in (informal) small-scale fish trading operations. However, small-scale fisheries and supply-chain jobs outside production are not well recorded, so the actual number of women may be higher. Comparable estimates are not yet available for the 38 million aquaculture sector workers.
  • 28. Gender, along with intersectional factors (such as economic class, ethnic group, age or religion), is a key determinant of the many different ways by which fisheries and aquaculture affect food security and nutrition outcomes, availability, access, stability and diet adequacy, for the population groups directly involved in fish production and supply chains, but also beyond.
  • 29. Men are dominant in direct production work in fisheries and aquaculture. Much of women’s work, such as gleaning, diving, post-harvest processing and vending, is not recognized or not well recorded, despite its economic and other contributions. Gender disaggregated data are not routinely collected and, partly as a result of this, little policy attention is given to women and to the gender dimension of the sector.

In the Recommendations, item 7 addressed Gender Equity with the following recommendation (7)

States should

  • 7a) Ensure that their aquaculture and fisheries policies and interventions do not create negative impacts on women and encourage gender equality.
  • 7b) Enshrine gender equity in all fisheries rights systems, including licensing and access rights. The definitions of fishing must cover all forms of harvest including the forms typically practised by women and small-scale operators, such as inshore and inland harvesting of invertebrates by hand and the use of very small-scale gear.